These plans were upset and Bruce later withdrew its application for the Lac Cardinal, proposing instead a new site about 60 km away. Tritium emissions from other CANDU plants are similarly low. performance. WR-1 operated successfully for many years and promised a significantly higher efficiency than water-cooled versions.. Jack Gibbons, "Darlington Re-Build Consumer Protection Plan", Ontario Clear Air Alliance, 23 September 2010, p. 3.  In addition to its two PHWR reactors, India has some safeguarded pressurised heavy-water reactors (PHWRs) based on the CANDU design, and two safeguarded light-water reactors supplied by the US. Since the 1980s, dramatic improvements in LWR outage management have narrowed the gap, with several units achieving capacity factors ~90% and higher, with an overall fleet performance of 92% in 2010.  Darlington was the worst, at 350% over budget, but this project was stopped in-progress thereby incurring additional interest charges during a period of high interest rates, which is a special situation that was not expected to repeat itself. Bundles of thin fuel elements allow easy escape of fast neutrons from the fuel. These efforts led to the first CANDU-type reactor, the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD), in Rolphton, Ontario. These overruns were repeated at Bruce, with Units 3 and 4 running 90% over budget.  The low 235U density in natural uranium also implies that less of the fuel will be consumed before the fission rate drops too low to sustain criticality, because the ratio of 235U to fission products + 238U is lower. A further unique feature of heavy-water moderation is the greater stability of the chain reaction. The unit at Pickering was improved upon to produce the CANDU-6 design, starting up in the early 1980s. Technical problems and redesigns added about another billion to the resulting $14.4 billion price. engineering, procurement, construction and project management experts offer customized operations, maintenance and plant life management services, including waste management and decommissioning. , AECL had been working on a design known as the ACR-700, using elements of the latest versions of the CANDU 6 and CANDU 9, with a design power of 700 MWe. In light-water reactors, the fuel is typically enriched to between 2% and 5% 235U (the leftover fraction with less 235U is called depleted uranium). Core Geometry Subsequent Fission Fuel Original Fission Fuel Thermal Neutron Fast Neutron Moderator. In the late 1970s, AECL noted that each reactor sale would employ 3,600 Canadians and result in $300 million in balance-of-payments income. This issue was so major that even the relatively small pressure vessel originally intended for use in the NPD prior to its mid-construction redesign could not be fabricated domestically and had to be manufactured in Scotland instead, and domestic development of the technology required to produce pressure vessels of the size required for commercial-scale heavy water moderated power reactors was thought to be very unlikely.. ", The Evolution of CANDU Fuel Cycles and Their Potential Contribution to World Peace, CBC Digital Archives – Candu: The Canadian Nuclear Reactor, Small sealed transportable autonomous (SSTAR), Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Vulnerability of nuclear plants to attack, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll, Cancelled nuclear reactors in the United States, Inquiries into uranium mining in Australia, Nuclear and radiation fatalities by country, Nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union, Nuclear weapons tests of the United States, 1996 San Juan de Dios radiotherapy accident, 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident, Three Mile Island accident health effects, Thor missile launch failures at Johnston Atoll, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CANDU_reactor&oldid=996517595, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2018, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from December 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 02:10. This reactor configuration can be seen in Figure 4. Figure 11.2 shows their arrangement. The neutron economy of heavy-water moderation and precise control of on-line refueling allow CANDU to use a great range of fuels other than enriched uranium, e.g., natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, thorium, plutonium, and used LWR fuel. Canada's Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor design, which uses heavy water as a moderator, was scaled up to 200 MWe and then 500 MWe.
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