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The Chesapeake Colonies were the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, later the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Province of Maryland, later Maryland, both colonies located in British America and centered on the Chesapeake Bay.Settlements of the Chesapeake region grew slowly due to diseases such as malaria. The First Great Awakening was a religious revival of Protestantism in which preachers emphasized the emotional, rather than the intellectual side of religion. There was more religious freedom in the Middle Colonies than in New England. American colonies, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in the area that is now a part of the eastern United States. Finally, the geography and climate of the Middle Colonies affected who would settle there by dictating the economic activities of the region. The population of the American colonies through the 18th century was primarily a mixture of immigrants from different countries in Europe and slaves from Africa. They traveled to the new world in 1769 to start American Methodist societies; Pilmore in Philadelphia, and Boardman in New York. During the 18th century, the British Atlantic experienced an outburst of Protestant revivalism known as the First Great Awakening. They were divided into three groups. The three colonies had major differences in their governments, religion, manufacturing industries, and … The 18th century saw a host of social, religious, and intellectual changes across the British Empire. 1880: Religious meetinghouses were important centers of community life in the colonies. Many of the frontier provinces saw influxes of immigrants due to the availability of cheap land. Economy in the Middle Colonies. Once established, the 13 British colonies could be divided into three geographic areas: New England, Middle, and Southern. A massive population explosion in Europe brought wheat prices up, and by 1770, a bushel of wheat cost twice as much as it did in 1720. Both Canada and the white population of the English colonies experienced increases of 2½ percent per year during the eighteenth century. The middle class typically dominate voting in a developed country with a middle class of larger than 1/3 of the population. The northern and southern American colonies had plenty of differences, but one thing they all pretty much had in common was ancestry. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. x��]ɒ���W�ŊQݪ}�O�p�¢L�t��pBq8b��� ������20���L��r{�������ҵ�RJ5���R�T�j�R�U��x]�RM�o��Uuy_����/����6i�?�����Uj��`m�������{[��Ϸ�x{[}�\ղR�ۛ��ۯ�������;g��z?�m��?�%ۏ={S|�ұ}���g��m���v�*v@�T�ş�����X�����*�'F���M/���}�?�^U�lw�>b���z�iŗ�gab�F�,���9�Җk}^n�i�s��x�|������Ū1��(��u�P~�j?O���{]�3O�'Z���u�Ě徟ݖO"�������4�naB���&ő����wY>q�}rO�\2��,����e����������|r��M���P��v��NʃM�������؝Df'ɶ�my�M��5�3��‚��(�|g!�%�E���e�$��Y�9�b�5�&|*�v{:+�%?�H,�8��¤�Gߨ��t����|�{T��Ӌ�B�6���1-Y{-�o���s7���O��W&�����Cv%6��J(i��L���Ő�.�-%pf�r�g=�Ol��K#P������x�b'�n�����y��k�y�jc�w�~�w�,�frƩ�;��\��jL�\��`%�lش�P���E�g�5�u��4� ���[*/�n;�3���zoj��&����z���l�C��x� Learn More. Common Characteristics The Middle Colonies were more diverse than colonies in New England and the South. The religion of the Middle Colonies, as one would expect, was diverse. Demographics Edit. The Congregational Church, founded by the Puritans, was not automatically joined by all New England residents because of Puritan beliefs that God singled out only a few specific people for salvation. The Southern Region, also known as the Chesapeake Colonies, included the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The New England colonists largely originated from England, Ireland, and Scotland. Nonetheless, the Great Awakening touched the lives of thousands on both sides of the Atlantic and provided a shared experience in the 18th-century British Empire. Demographic characteristics Slaves, indentured servants. Slavery in colonial America was very oppressive, as it passed on from generation to generation and slaves had no legal rights. Virginia 447,016 2. This was partly due to the haphazard manner in which these colonies were populated, with many settlers spread throughout the colonies on small family farms. Seventeenth-century rates, beginning from a low base and more influenced by immigration, were even higher. A tide of German immigration to Pennsylvania swelled between 1725 and 1775, with immigrants arriving as redemptioners or indentured servants. European travelers in the colonies were fairly numerous, and, fortunately for us, many of them were observant men who published their impressions. Describe the varied religious landscape of the American colonies. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives almost never worked in the fields with their husbands. Deism is a loosely used term that describes the views of certain English and continental thinkers. Ministers often told their congregations that women were inferior to men and more inclined to sin and err. They were all established as Royal colonies 3. Death in childbirth was common enough that the term now-wife was coined to refer to a man’s present wife as compared to those that he had previously lost. Unlike English colonial wives, German and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were also given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage. Large amounts of wheat and other different cash crops were cultivated in these areas, which were harvested and sold in their local markets and overseas. The middle colonies were extremely diverse in their demographics. In addition, many small subsistence farms were family owned and operated by yeoman farmers. The Middle Colonies shared the fertile land of the Southern Colonies and many large fields of wheat could be found and they shared the industry of timber and fishing. A variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants also arose during this time to provide services to the growing farming population. Demographics of the Middle Colonies. Select all that apply. par David W. GALENSON. These religiously-affiliated schools may be reflective of the fact that New Englanders wrote journals, pamphlets, books, and especially sermons—more than all of the other colonies combined. After 1720, mid-Atlantic farming was stimulated with the international demand for wheat. German and Dutch immigrants granted women more control over property, which was not permitted in the local English law. In both cases however, the objects of study are the characteristics of human populations. Land was generally acquired more easily than in New England or in the plantation South. However, the slaves did not accrue wages or benefit from any of this profit. Religion in the Middle Colonies. The mid-Atlantic region, by 1750, was divided by both ethnic background and wealth. -The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse. B. The Southern Colonies Your turn! The Great Awakening saw the rise of several Protestant denominations, including Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists (who emphasized adult baptism of converted Christians rather than infant baptism). By 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people after an influx of German, Swiss, and Irish immigrants. The monthly journals appearing toward the middle of the century also contained occasional bits of information; but on the whole they are much less valuable sources than the weekly newspaper. Charter companies played an important role in England’s success at colonizing what would become the United States. This could not be said of the middle colonies. The towns did not have courts—that was a function of a larger unit, the county, whose officials were appointed by the state government. These new churches gained converts and competed with older Protestant groups like Anglicans (members of the Church of England), Congregationalists (the heirs of Puritanism in America), and Quakers. The Mennonites tended to be very conservative and had their own hymns and Psalters. The eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the Yankee descendants of the original New Englanders. Maryland 202,599 5. Large portions were usually given to men of higher social standing, but every white man who wasn’t indentured or criminally bonded had enough land to support a family. The Moravians were deeply involved with the religious use of music. British Colonies Long Essay The values of each the North, Middle, and South colonies were different. Demographic Characteristics of Intra-EU Movers. See answer jbcbever3345 is waiting for your help. In what way did the region of the Middle Colonies help establish one of the defining characteristics of our nation? 2). The group left Moravia and Bohemia in response to harsh persecution for their religious beliefs and practices. By 1775, Germans constituted about one-third of the population of the state. Large middle class built around artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers. Politically, they were generally inactive until 1740, when they joined a Quaker-led coalition that took control of the legislature. Arable land was plentiful and the soil was fertile. The Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware were founded in the early to late 1600s depending on the colony. By the end of the 1600s, a very wealthy class of rice planters who relied on slaves had attained dominance in the southern part of the Carolinas, especially around Charles Town. Instead, membership was limited to those who could convincingly test before members of the church that they had been saved. The former Dutch colony of New York had the most eclectic collection of residents from many different nations and prospered as a major trading and commercial center after about 1700. The demographics of the lower South colonies (58% of blacks were enslaved, compared to 36% in upper South and 3% in the North) in 1750 most directly contributed to which of the following conditions for enslaved people? The main commercial center of Philadelphia was run mostly by prosperous Quakers, supplemented by many small farming and trading communities with strong German contingents located in the Delaware River Valley. From the foundation of the colonies beginning with the founding of Jamestown until the beginning of the Revolutionary War, different regions of the eastern coast had different characteristics. Meanwhile, William Penn, who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682, attracted many British Quakers with his policies of religious liberty and freehold ownership. Demographic characteristics All of the systems of government in the Southern Colonies elected their own legislature, they were all democratic, they all had a governor, governor's court, and a court system. Lumber, ship building, and trading was used in the colonies and fishing was relied on. Each colony had its own unique characteristics, but historians lump them. Many in New England also based their lifestyle on the sea and became merchants or fishermen. The political implications, although not realized at the time, were enormous. It was established by William Penn as a haven for Quakers in the New World. The middle colonies were known as the breadbasket colonies because a lot of grain was grown there. Most of these settlers were male immigrants from England who died soon after their arrival. Learn middle colonies settlement with free interactive flashcards. The 13 Colonies by population in 1770 As the Revolution approached, this is how the Colonies ranked in size. Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, the Carolinas and Georgia were all founded by Englishmen, settled by people of English descent and remained under English control throughout the colonial period. Both Canada and the white population of the English colonies experienced increases of 2½ percent per year during the eighteenth century. Many of these were African American; some were free while others were enslaved. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours. Harvard University, founded by Congregationalists, became a source of Unitarian training. The mid-A… It created a religious and ethnic pluralism that attracted immigrants from all over Europe. Whereas Martin Luther and John Calvin had preached a doctrine of predestination and close reading of scripture, new evangelical ministers spread a message of personal and experiential faith that rose above mere book learning. Middle and Southern Colonies. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. Characteristics of Colonial Regions: Middle Colonies •Geography & Economy –Good Land to be Cleared, Three Major Rivers (Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna), Good Harbors –“Breadbasket” of the Colonies, trade in foodstuffs, including the Triangle Trade •Demographics –1700: Twice as many people lived in New England than the Middle Colonies Individuals could bring about their own salvation by accepting Christ, an especially welcome message for those who had felt excluded by traditional Protestantism—women, the young, and people at the lower end of the social spectrum. Each group of colonies had its unique aspects in many areas, from architecture to economics, and various more characteristics. The populations of four Colonies—Virginia, Massachusetts, North Carolina and New York—do not include certain territorial claims that became separate states after the Revolution. The Middle Colonies Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. History of religion in the United States. However, numerous religious groups, especially the Puritans in New England, established tax-supported elementary schools so their children could learn to read the Bible. %PDF-1.3 Often, women were taught to read so that they could learn the Bible, but few were taught to write, as it was thought there was no reason a woman should know how to write. Old Ship Church, Hingham, Massachusetts, ca. To decide which region was the best, I have chosen three factors to focus … The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture; collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. Characteristics of the Southern Colonies. German farmers were renowned for their highly productive animal husbandry and agricultural practices. The demographic characteristics and consequences of dispersal were studied in a population of Peromyscus leucopus with an extensive system of live-trapping grids. The middle colonies which comprised of New York, Delaware, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the soil and climate in the regions were suitable for agricultural practices. The town meeting levied taxes, built roads, and elected officials who managed town affairs. Lifestyles among British colonists in North America varied dramatically by region. The acts caused the colonies to set up their own militia to serve in times of emergency. Families tended to be large, and childbearing could be dangerous prior to advancements in medicine and health care. The Moravians, like John and Charles Wesley, arrived in America in 1735. -Later known as the "bread basket" colonists. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe. Consequentially, they had the highest per capita income in the New World. The colonial western frontier was mainly settled from about 1717 to 1775, mostly by Presbyterian settlers who were feeling hard times and persecution in northern England border lands, Scotland, and the northern portion of Ireland. Charter companies were made up of groups of stockholders, usually merchants and wealthy landowners, who sought personal economic gain and, in some cases, wanted to advance England’s national goals. They first settled in Georgia, then moved to Pennsylvania and North Carolina. The lower class were farmhands, unskilled laborers, and indentured servants. Other New England merchants took advantage of the rich fishing areas along the Atlantic coast. Much later during the colonial experience, as the values of the American Enlightenment were imported from Britain, the philosophies of such thinkers as John Locke weakened the view that husbands were natural “rulers” over their wives and replaced it with a (slightly) more liberal conception of marriage. The Anglican Church of England was officially established in most of the South; however, there were no bishops, and the churches had only local roles. New England In the New England colonies, settlers went there for religious freedom. The Middle Colonies Questions and Answers - Discover the eNotes.com community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on The Middle Colonies They practiced hymn singing daily, and some wrote instrumental music. The term demographics is often used erroneously for demography, the study of human population and its structure and change. It has been suggested that free movement within the EU is particularly availed of by the highly educated (Favell 2008). The central fact of the demographic history of early North America is rapid growth. Education was widespread in the northern colonies, which had established colleges led by Harvard College, College of New Jersey (Princeton), and Yale College, while the College of William and Mary trained the elite in Virginia. Characteristics of the Chesapeake Colonies. a. These populations continued to grow at a rapid rate throughout the 18th century primarily because of high birth rates and relatively low death rates. and find homework help for other Life in the Thirteen Colonies questions at eNotes High-level politicians gave out plots of land to male settlers, or proprietors, who then divided the land amongst themselves. Agricultural Differences . ��pe*�.؉R�G����8������:�Z%P�i*#�˟�0Z�@��O�ޠ4C:�{�� \�}��M�C!�\�$ݏK�D�RR�2A�J�� tƢT���oO���h��y����������@��ݻ�GqB@)l��~*�D=����=R������[���4$:',}�����,T�n�?R9�yJRrq��/���������4A�PK3�oo���SZ4p�E����C��t*Qo��c�)V����T>��k��b��ȝg�[�u/�B9!�� .�(|\ܕ�rDQ�Β�T 舳�XՋ\���p��Mm���Q�N��[Z��,n���r���-"�潊C%M;'tR����\[C&a�. Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. We therefore investigate the demographic characteristics of those who move within Europe, focusing on selected cases and the period 2008–2011. New England’s healthy climate (the cold winters killed the mosquitoes and other disease-bearing insects) and abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate of any of the colonies. Demographic history of the United States. The following are common characteristics of the middle class. Describe crucial demographic and economic differences between the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies. The Mennonites are a religious group which immigrated to America from Europe. Most of the early settlers depended on the fur trade and on farming for economic survival. These shipyards were aided by cheap wood sold by merchants who exploited the vast amounts of timber along the coasts and rivers of northern New England. Contrasts Between the North and the South . Middle Colonies - Government Used many different democratic principles that … The Middle and Northern colonies differed considerably in their geographical aspects, leading to dissimilar social and political features. New England was settled by a highly educated, agricultural demographic, and its population grew rapidly due to favorable weather conditions that kept disease low. However, women continued to have very few rights. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors. Some came in 1683 to settle in Pennsylvania. 2. The middle colonies. B. Seventeenth-century rates, beginning from a low base and more influenced by immigration, were even higher. The middle colonies’ settlements were scattered west of New York City and Philadelphia. The people who founded the Middle Colonies were looking to practice their own. The excellent natural harbors helped the middle colonies become traders among the colonies. The Middle colonies, including New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware all shared the benefit of flat land and rich soil, while the New England Colonies were left with a rocky landscape that made farming difficult. Characteristics Of The 13 Colonies; ... Caribbean, Middle Colonies, and the Lower South. 1. Enormous population growth: common feature among the 13 colonies 1. Laborers stood at the bottom of seaport society. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Immigration and migration patterns in the early colonies were diverse and varied greatly from one region to the next. In New England, high-level politicians gave out plots of land to male settlers, or proprietors, who then divided the land amongst themselves. Large farmers and merchants became wealthy, while farmers with smaller farms and artisans only made enough for subsistence. Get an answer for 'What languages did people in the 13 colonies speak?' The influence of these older Protestant groups, such as the New England Congregationalists, declined because of the Great Awakening. << /Length 4 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> The colonies that were the most specialized in the production of goods, such as sugar and coffee, relied the most heavily on slaves. The Chesapeake – Maryland and Virginia – have many distinct characteristics. Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. Southern colonies were made up of a mix of indentured servants, wealthy elite, and slaves from Africa. The Colonial Population The population of the American colonies through the 18th century was primarily a mixture of immigrants from different countries in Europe and slaves from Africa. Deism stressed morality and rejected the orthodox Christian view of the divinity of Christ, often viewing him as a sublime, but entirely human, teacher of morality. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. Current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population in Virginia in the 17th century. Social Studies. KEY ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE COLONIES. DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF WHITE SERVITUDE IN COLONIAL BRITISH AMERICA. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Methodism spread along the east coast during the years leading up to the American Revolution. Massachusetts 235,808 4. Demographics include age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. In contrast to the South where the cash crop plantation system dominated, and New England whose rocky soil made large-scale agriculture difficult, The middle colonies were fertile. The acts caused the colonies to call for . Three rivers -- Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson -- tapped fur trade in the interior. By 1776, about 85% of the white population in the British colonies was of English, Irish, Scottish, or Welsh descent, with 9% of German origin and 4% Dutch. Civil unrest in Europe and other colonies saw an influx of immigrants to the Middle Colonies in the 18th century. Which are some characteristics of the Middle Colonies? But other middle colonies also offered at least limited religious toleration. Also, as an activity, ask your child to interpret the images, and tell a story about the Southern Colonies. 1. Shopkeepers, artisans, shipwrights, butchers, coopers, seamstresses, cobblers, bakers, carpenters, masons, and many other specialized professions made up the middle class of seaport society. The experiences of women during the colonial era varied greatly from colony to colony and among different ethnic groups. The plantations of the Southern colonies mainly grew tobacco, indigo, and rice for export and raised most of their own food supplies. These people worked on the docks unloading inbound vessels and loading outbound vessels with wheat, corn, and flaxseed. Summarize the demography of early 18th-century New England and Pennsylvania. Use Picture Stories for discussion starters. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. BY: HYSTORIAN VIVIANE HARLE 2. Introduction. Deism, a broad religious system that stresses morality, gave rise to Unitarianism. Excellent farming land: region became known as the “bread colonies” Three rivers allowed for access to fur trade inland. Many more settlers arrived during this time as well, especially Protestant sects seeking freedom of religion. All APUSH students should be able to identify and describe characteristics of the 13 British colonies. Between 1742 and 1753, roughly 1,000 Germans settled in Broad Bay, Massachusetts (now Waldoboro, Maine). Many initially landed in family groups in Philadelphia or Baltimore but soon migrated to the western frontier, where land was cheaper and restrictions less onerous. They all had a common goal, which was to govern themselves and have a say in how they were represented. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. The New England colonies which consisted of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. -Known for its large population of Quakers. A. The Mennonites left Germany because they were persecuted for refusing to perform military service on the basis of religious objections. By 1780, about 287,000 slaves had been imported into the 13 colonies, most into the southern colonies. The middle class included skilled workers and farmers. The Southern Colonies were economically dominated by the wealthy planters in Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, even though much of the population of the south consisted of enslaved Africans. In the north, many colonists lived on small, self-sufficient farms and enjoyed a fairly high level of education and personal liberty. The mid-Atlantic region was also heavily agricultural, but its lifestyle practices differed depending on the ethnicity of immigrants to the region. 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demographic characteristics of middle colonies